Posted in All, Books

Red and Black by Stendhal Summary


About this book Le Rouge et le Noir is a historical psychological novel in two volumes by Stendhal, published in 1830.

Short summary

Julien Sorel is just a poor carpenter’s son. His love of reading has given him all kinds of grand ideas about becoming a great man. The only problem is that Julien is living in early 19th-century France following the fall of Napoleon Bonaparte. The country is basically run by an unquestioned king and a bunch of superficial elites who wouldn’t know honor if it slapped them in the face.Julien catches a break when he’s hired to be a tutor for the children of the wealthy Monsieur de Rênal, mayor of Verrières. Julien has an affair with de Rênal’s wife and has to leave town to go to priest’s school to avoid the scandal. While at the seminary, he gets another new job as a personal secretary for the Marquis de La Mole, one of the most influential men in Paris.Julien goes to live with the Marquis, but is quickly disillusioned by how superficial and boring life in the upper-class parts of Paris can be. No one says anything with any conviction and the world is just filled with a bunch of snarky social climbers. Julien forms a romantic relationship with the Marquis’ beautiful daughter Mathilde. The problem is that both he and Mathilde only want what they can’t have, and this creates a certain love-hate dance between them.

Acting on the advice of a Russian friend, Julien beats Mathilde at her own love games and secures her affection. She also reveals to him that she’s pregnant with his child. The two decide to get married. Mathilde’s dad is furious that Mathilde wants to marry a peasant, but he eventually agrees and gives Julien everything he’ll need to live as a wealthy man.Unfortunately, the Marquis withdraws his support for the wedding when he receives a letter from Julien’s old flame, Madame de Rênal. Madame’s letter says that Julien is a dastardly opportunist who only seduced Mathilde to climb the social ladder. After losing his father-in-law’s trust and respect, Julien travels back to his hometown of Verrières and shoots Madame de Rênal. She lives, but he’s imprisoned and sentenced to death anyway.Julien makes sure to use his last days in the limelight to criticize France and all of its hypocrisy. He is then beheaded and everyone in France goes back to their insincere, superficial lives.

Plot Summary

M. de Rênal, ultra mayor of the small provincial town of Verrières, hires Julien Sorel, a young peasant who aspires to the priesthood, as tutor for his children. The hiring of Julien is calculated to enhance Rênal’s prestige among the wealthy liberals. Julien, ambitious and amoral, had hoped to pursue a military career but has decided to enter the priesthood as the most likely means to success. He chooses hypocrisy as his weapon in his encounter with society. He sees his position as tutor as the first step in his ascension, which will culminate, he hopes, in Parisian aristocracy.Mme. de Rênal innocently falls in love with Julien after he has lived in the Rênal country home for some time. When Julien discovers that he is loved, he decides that he will seduce Mme. de Rênal as an expression of the scorn he feels for her husband. His plan of seduction would have failed miserably, so awkwardly does he execute it, were Mme. de Rênal not hopelessly in love with him. Succumbing to Julien’s natural charm, which he displays in unguarded moments, Mme. de Rênal becomes, in fact, Julien’s mistress. She educates him socially and in the local political intrigues. She succeeds in having Julien awarded a much coveted place in the guard of honor on the occasion of a visit by Charles X.Their love affair is idyllic until one of the Rênals’ sons falls gravely ill, which Mme. de Rênal interprets as divine punishment for her adultery. Soon M. de Rênal receives an anonymous letter accusing Julien of having seduced his wife. Mme. de Rênal succeeds in duping her husband into believing that the accusation is false. She convinces him that the letter comes from Valenod, Rênal’s rival and assistant, who has attempted in the past to court Mme. de Rênal. Her husband believes her because he is comfortably established and is horrified at the thought of a scandal. In order to quiet the rumors, Julien moves into the Rênals’ townhouse in Verrières. Because of his brilliant reputation as a tutor, he is invited to dinner by Valenod, who would hope to hire Julien as the tutor for his own children.A servant girl from the Rênal household, also in love with Julien but spurned by him, denounces the lovers to the former village priest, Chélan, who insists that Julien leave Verrières to enter the seminary in Besançon. Through Chélan’s influence with Pirard, rector of the seminary, Julien is awarded a scholarship. Julien’s affair with Mme. de Rênal is temporarily ended, but he visits her room for a final rendezvous.

Julien’s first attempts to succeed as a student meet with failure because he excels as a scholar, and the Church’s reactionary influence that prevails in the seminary requires of its future priests docility and intellectual conformity in mediocrity. Julien’s superiority, however, is appreciated by Rector Pirard, who makes Julien his protégé. One day as Julien is assisting in the decoration of the Besançon cathedral, he encounters Mme. de Rênal, who promptly faints at the sight of him.Pirard obtains a position for Julien as secretary to a powerful aristocrat in Paris, the Marquis de La Mole, to whom Pirard has been of invaluable assistance in a lawsuit. Pirard also leaves Besançon for a comfortable parish in Paris.Before going to Paris, Julien pays a last visit to Mme. de Rênal, presenting himself at her window late at night. At first rebuffed by his mistress’ virtue, Julien artfully destroys her resistance by announcing that his departure for Paris is imminent and that they will never see each other again. Mme. de Rênal acquiesces and Julien remains hidden to spend the following day with her.Book II finds Julien in Paris as secretary to the Marquis de La Mole. Soon Julien makes his services indispensable to his employer, although his provincial manners and inexperience in high society cause him constant embarrassment. The marquis’ proud daughter, Mathilde, takes an interest in Julien when she overhears the latter denouncing the sterility of the Mole’s salon. Mathilde is bored with the convention and barrenness of the aristocracy of which she is a part. She is in need of diversion, and Julien will provide it for her. The marquis finds Julien’s intelligence and wit very refreshing, and ultimately Julien becomes almost a son to the marquis. The latter sends Julien to London on a diplomatic mission in order that he may gain experience and as a pretext to have Julien awarded a decoration.

At the behest of Mathilde, Julien attends a ball, where he makes the acquaintance of a liberal aristocrat condemned to die. Mathilde is the most sought-after beauty of the season, but Julien hardly notices her, so inspired is he by the hero he has met. Mathilde, on the other hand, sees in Julien a reincarnation of her illustrious ancestor, Boniface de La Mole, a queen’s lover who was beheaded. Mathilde falls in love with Julien.Julien is unable to decide if he is loved or if Mathilde and her brother and their friends are trying to make of him a dupe. Julien’s attempt to leave Paris on a business trip for the marquis moves Mathilde to a declaration of love. Julien, still distrustful, takes precautions to safeguard his reputation, sending Mathilde’s avowal to his friend, Fouqué. Alleging another business trip, Julien receives an invitation from Mathilde to visit her in her room late at night. Still convinced that he is being tricked, Julien nonetheless appears at the appointed hour, and after much mutual embarrassment, Mathilde becomes his mistress.Mathilde now fears that she has given herself a master, and she repents of having compromised herself. Julien discovers that he is desperately in love with Mathilde, but her ardor has cooled. Unfortunately for Julien, Mathilde is only capable of loving him when she thinks that she is not loved by him. When in a moment of anger Julien one day appears to threaten her life, she is in love again. Their second rendezvous occurs, but Mathilde again repents immediately after.Julien, tormented by passion, is called upon by the marquis to serve as secretary at a secret meeting of reactionary aristocrats and to deliver a secret message to London. Successfully fulfilling his mission, Julien then goes to Strasbourg, where he meets a former acquaintance from London, who advises him how to reawaken Mathilde’s love by jealousy. Julien returns to Paris to execute his plan, choosing a prude to court by means of love letters furnished to him by his friend.Mathilde responds to the stratagem, but Julien realizes that to keep her love alive he must love her at a distance. Mathilde is pregnant, and after the marquis’ rage has subsided at the announcement of this news, the latter finally agrees to obtain an army commission for Julien and to encourage his career. Julien occupies his new post in Strasbourg but receives word from Mathilde to return to Paris, that all is lost. In checking on Julien’s past, the marquis has learned from Mme. de Rênal, in a letter dictated by her confessor, that Julien is an opportunist who succeeds by seducing women.

Learning this, Julien hurries to Verrières, arms himself, and shoots Mme. de Rênal at church. Imprisoned and awaiting trial for attempted murder, Julien is visited by Mathilde, who attempts to negotiate his acquittal with the Jesuits. Julien is resigned to die and in the solitude of his prison cell discovers that he is still in love with Mme. de Rênal, whom he had only wounded, and that his love for Mathilde has disappeared.During the trial, in spite of his resolution not to speak in his own defense, Julien informs the court that he is not being tried for attempted murder but for having attempted to rise above his social class. The jury finds Julien guilty and he is sentenced to be guillotined.During his last days in prison, Julien finds peace and happiness in his reflections and through the reunion with Mme. de Rênal, who visits him daily. Julien faces death courageously, and after the execution, Mathilde, in a re-enactment of a scene from the Mole family history, furtively steals Julien’s severed head and lovingly buries it with her own hands. Mme. de Rênal follows Julien in death.

Posted in All, Books

Middlemarch by George Eliot Analysis

One of the main characters of the novel is the narrator who tells the story from the multiple points of view of the characters, while adding her own reflective wisdom. This vantage point gives us compassionate insight into each character but within a certain social context, for the narrator stands for the collective wisdom gleaned from all the lives put together. This narrator is “omniscient” and anonymous, though we can think of her as close to George Eliot’s own viewpoint.
Immediately, the narrator begins to uncover the fact that most people are lost in their own illusions of reality, one of the themes of the book. She brilliantly weaves together the intersecting illusions of all the characters, showing us the profile of the town of Middlemarch, a fictitious small town in the rural English midlands in the early nineteenth century. Middlemarch stands for English life just before the impact of the industrial revolution. The time is just before the great Reform Bill of 1832. Life is still somewhat simple and conventional here in this backwater, and the citizens are not interested in anything but daily concerns. This sets the stage for their clashes with the more extraordinary and farsighted characters, Dorothea and Lydgate and Will Ladislaw who stand for the forces of change.
While it could be rather farcical that the beautiful Dorothea, who is constantly compared to the Blessed Virgin, is marrying Casaubon, the “dried bookworm of fifty,” Eliot treats Dorothea’s “soul hunger” as a real and tragic phenomenon in this society. She has no teacher or even comrade to whom she may tell of her own exalted thoughts and wishes. Even her sister Celia, though adoring her, criticizes her, and does not understand her need for living her religious vision in daily life. Dorothea thinks that Casaubon will understand and teach her, while he, it is clear, expects an obedient and self-abnegating wife. The narrator gives us foreshadowing of this problematic marriage by explaining Dorothea’s short-sightedness and “theoretic” nature, desire for “intensity and greatness.” Casaubon also has trouble with his vision and needs a secretary to help him with his life work, The Key to All Mythologies.

Posted in Entertainment

You Should Know About Homeschooling


All children deserve a top notch education, but making that happen for your children does not have to mean expensive private schools or living in the most elaborate neighborhoods. Plenty of families have kicked public schools to the curb and start teaching their children at home. There are several ways to provide your children with the education they need from the comfort of your home. Keep reading if you would like to know more about it.

Do not neglect to give your kids some breaks through the day. Studying for hours on end can make them restless and tired of learning. Let them play or simply relax. It’s good for everyone.

Make all of life an opportunity to learn. Most children will excel and learn more by seeing how to put their lessons into practice rather than just reading it in a book. Aid them with their grammar when they are speaking or reading. You can cook together, for example. They are going to quickly learn, so they can make you proud.

Talk to other families near you who are homeschooling and set up field trips together. This allows your kids to socialize while learning. Also, you can save money over time with group rates.

While you want to protect your kids from negative influences by some children in the public school system, it is necessary to provide external interaction with other children. Take time out and go on play dates with the people in your neighborhood. Bring your children to the park so they can play with other kids. Organized activities, such as sports teams and clubs are an essential part of socialization, as well.

Posted in All, Books, Education

The Fetishism of Commodities and the Secret Thereof, in the Marx-Engels Reader

In this section we discover one more characteristic of the commodity. Its ability and tendency to be fetishist. Marx begins by elaborating on how the ostensibly concrete categories of mainstream political-economy, specifically the commodity, are not a complete account of the social relations of production. The problem is that the bourgeois political-economists take the commodity-form for granted . They grasp it at the level of appearance only, and thus fetishist it. Marx will go on to debunk the Robinson Crusoe example to illustrate this point. The hypothetical situation of a lone Briton on his sunny island is totally at odds with the social character of labor.

But to take a step back, Marx begins by provisionally agreeing with the political-economist. Yes, he concedes, the appearance of the commodity is an appropriate point of departure. It’s not a falsehood that commodities are created by human labor and they are useful. Moreover, the political-economists were right to see the value of a commodity as determined by the socially necessary labor-time involved in its production – this labor being social in nature, meaning that is is done for the purpose of exchange. This is all consistent with the Robinson Crusoe example.

It’s all obvious and not inaccurate, Marx says.

Yet, political-economy fails to see this social relation as existing between producers; instead it sees only the products of labor in relation to each other. In his words, “It (exchange-relations) is nothing but the definite social relation between men which assumes here, for them, the fantastic form of a relation between things.” (p.165) We can attribute this phenomenon to the nature of labor under capitalism. Specifically, we produce commodities so that they can be exchanged. Thus our only obvious exchange relation to other producers is that we interact with them only to the extent that they produce commodities. What we have are “material relations between persons and social relations between things.” (p.166)

Marx chooses to title this phenomenon “the fetishism of commodities”, borrowing a religious term signifying that the creations of human labor appear to be independent, to live a life on their own. Marx lists some of the attendant effects of the fetishism of commodities:-

1]  A failure to see social relations between producers of commodities even as they exchange commodities with each other.

2]  A reduction of all qualitatively different labor to the value-form, thus making all labor commensurable.

3]  Confusion over the substance of value; seeing it as something other than the crystalization of labor-power.

4]  Misrecognition of the social character of private labor.

Ultimately, the fetishism of commodities naturalizes that which is historically specific. A perfect example of this is that gold and silver, or any other metallic currency, are things whose values is assumed to be intrinsic to them, though of course if one were to rigorously interrogate the issue we would find that the values of such things exist purely as social relations. Revisiting the first chapter of Capital with this in mind, we see Marx’s argument to be that the commodity is not only a thing. It is also the structure of labor-in-capitalism, turning all labor in value-production and obfuscating its own specificity as a social form.

Posted in All, Education

Value Education: Definition and the Concept of Value Education (With Example)

What is the meaning of value Education?

Value education is the process by which people give moral values to others.It can be an activity that can take place in any organisation during which people are assisted by others, who may be older, in a position of authority, or are more experienced to make explicit those values underlying their own behaviour in order to assess the effectiveness of these values and associated behaviour for their own and others’ long term well-being, and to reflect on and acquire other values and behaviour which they recognise as being more effective for long term well-being of self and others. There is a difference between literacy and education. Values education can take place at home and as well as in schools, colleges, universities, jails and voluntary youth organisations. There are two main approaches to values education, some see it as inculcating or transmitting a set of values which often come from societal or religious rules or cultural ethics while others see it as a type of Socratic dialogue. Where people are gradually brought to their own realisation of what is good behaviours for themselves and their community.


Values education is a term used to name several things, and there is much academic controversy surrounding it. Some regard it as all aspects of the process by which teachers transmit values to pupils.
Others see it as an activity that can take place in any organization during which people are assisted by others, who may be older, in a position of authority or are more experienced, to make explicit those values underlying their own behavior, to assess the effectiveness of these values and associated behavior for their own and others’ long term well-being and to reflect on and acquire other values and behavior which they recognize as being more effective for long term well-being of self and others.
This means that values education can take place at home, as well as in schools, colleges, universities, offender institutions and voluntary youth organizations. There are two main approaches to values education. Some see it as inculcating or transmitting a set of values which often come from societal or religious rules or cultural ethics.
Others see it as a type of Socratic dialogue where people are gradually brought to their own realization of what is good behavior for themselves and their community. Value education also leads to success. It has values of hard work, how nobody is useless and loving studies
Explicit values education is associated with those different pedagogies, methods or programmes that teachers or educators use in order to create learning experiences for students when it comes to value questions.

Objectives of Value Education:

a. To improve the integral growth of human begins.
b. To create attitudes and improvement towards sustainable lifestyle.
c. To increase awareness about our national history our cultural heritage, constitutional rights, national integration, community development and environment.
d. To create and develop awareness about the values and their significance and role.
e. To know about various living and non-living organisms and their interaction with environment.

Value Based Environmental Education

1. Human Values: Preparation of text-books and resource materials about environmental education can play an important role in building positive attitudes about environment. The basic human value ‘man in nature’ rather than ‘nature for man’ needs to be infused through the same.
2. Social Values: Love, compassion, tolerance and justice which are the basic teachings of most of our religions need to be woven into environmental education. These are the values to be nurtured so that all forms of life and the biodiversity on this earth are protected.
3. Cultural and Religious Values: These are the values enshrined in Vedas emphasize that man should not exploit nature without nurturing her. Our cultural customs and rituals in many ways teach us to perform such functions as would protect and nurture nature and respect every aspect of nature, treating them as sacred, are it rivers, earth, mountains or forests.
4. Ethical Values: Environmental education should encompass the ethical values of earth-centric rather than human-centric world-view. The educational system should promote the earth-citizenship thinking. Instead of considering human being as supreme we have to think of the welfare of the earth.
5. Global Values: The concept that the human civilization is a part of the planet as a whole and similarly nature and various natural phenomena over the earth are interconnected and inter-linked with special bonds of harmony. If we disturb this harmony anywhere there will be an ecological imbalance leading to catastrophic results.
6. Spiritual Values: Principles of self-restraint, self-discipline, contentment, reduction of wants, freedom from greed and austerity are some of the finest elements intricately woven into the traditional and religious fabric of our country. All these values promote conservationism and transform our consumeristic approach


Posted in WordPress



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  • Receive international payment in US Dollars, Euros, British Pounds, Japanese Yen, to their local bank account
  • Up to 71% cheaper than its nearest competitors


Payoneer, a leading online payments company transforming the way businesses send and receive cross-border payments, today reiterated its commitment to become the preferred business partner for Jaipur professionals, exporter and traders community in Rajasthan.

Payoneer empowers global commerce by connecting businesses, professionals, countries and currencies with its innovative cross-border payments platform.  In today’s borderless digital world, Payoneer enables millions of businesses and professionals from more than 200 countries to reach new audiences by facilitating seamless, cross-border payments.  Additionally, thousands of leading corporations including Airbnb, Amazon, Getty Images, Google, and Upwork rely on Payoneer’s mass pay-out services.

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  • Compliant: Payoneer is a licensed and registered e-Money issuer across the EU and Money Service Business (MSB) in the US.
  • Established: With operations spanning over 200 countries and territories and 150 currencies, more than 700 employees worldwide, and its India HQ in Bangalore, Payoneer is a preferred payment provider for over 30 lac small businesses world over.
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ECOMMERCE: SELL GLOBAL, LIVE LOCAL: Payoneer provides ecommerce marketplaces and online sellers with all the tools required to pay and get paid globally as easily as they do locally. With Payoneer, global marketplaces including Amazon, Wish, Rakuten, NewEgg and Lazada enjoy the convenience of using a single unified interface for initiating, tracking and reconciling disbursements regardless of the location, payment method or currency of the sellers.

FREELANCING: WORK GLOBAL, LIVE LOCAL: Payoneer provides freelancers, freelance marketplaces and service providers with fast, flexible and low cost payment solutions. Freelance marketplaces such as PeoplePerHour and – as well as any international company – are able to send funds to their freelancers easily and quickly. Freelancers in 200+ countries worldwide, who would typically encounter difficulties when attempting to receive global payments, are equipped with a host of payment services that remove the headache of getting paid.

AFFILIATES: MARKET GLOBAL, LIVE LOCAL: Hundreds of affiliate networks pay with Payoneer, including ClickBank, Taboola, Somoto, Supersonic, Taptica, CJ Affiliate by Conversant and MediaShakers – as well as networks built on Cake or HasOffers. Our solutions transcend geographical boundaries, allowing your affiliates to withdraw their funds in their local currency and using a payment method that best suits them.

Founded in 2005 and based in New York, Payoneer is venture-backed, profitable and ranked in the top 100 of Inc. 5000’s Financial Services companies. With 12 offices, worldwide (including its India HQ in Bangalore), it has an enviable talent pool of more than 700 employees globally.


Posted in All, Tech, WordPress

Semalt: 5 Vital Tips On How To Stand Against Phishing Scams and Spam

Approximately 1.6 billion bits of email spam is sent on a daily basis all over the world. It is estimated that 20 percent of the emails that are sent to you are spam. In North America, it is possible to trace the source of 80% of the spam since they are known to come from 200 popular spammers. Spam is a concern since it forms the basis upon which phishing attacks can be launched. Phishing risks you back account and your identity while spam is usually annoying.

Oliver King, the Customer Success Manager of Semalt, elaborates on the following approaches through which you can safeguard yourself against spam.

Open up multiple email addresses.

Firstly, set up a personal email address and restrict its use to personal correspondence to a few set of family and friends. In most cases, spammers build email lists by joining common names, numbers, and words. So as much as you would desire to use your surname and first name in your email address, it is advisable to be creative and select unique combination of characters. Primarily, you want to make it difficult for an individual to derive your personal email address. Now open a public email address and use it in situations that require you to subscribe to online services or register for a forum. Try to adopt the following measures with your public email address. Change it frequently. Use numerous public email addresses. These two moves will help you to know who is giving out your email address to potential spammers. After determining sites or platforms selling your email address, you are advised to avoid them and also report to Google.

Never reply to any spam.

The majority of the spammers verify log responses and receipts to their spam email addresses with an objective of determining the performance. This implies that the more you respond to this emails, the higher chances are that the number of spam will increase.

Reflect before you decide to unsubscribe.

It has been discovered that spammers are now sending fake unsubscribe emails dominated with spurious unsubscribe links. The tricks work in their favor by ensuring that once you click “unsubscribe” the amount of spam you receive increases. If an email comes from an unknown source and prompts you to unsubscribe, you are advised to resist the urge.

Ensure your browser is up to date.

Browser developers often update these applications to ensure that all the current security patches are in place. Failure to update your browser exposes your computer to malware or bugs that can collect your personal information and sends it to the spammers. You are advised to ensure that your auto update button is always on a move to safeguard your data.

Invest in anti-spam filters.

Ensure that the provider of your email account has numerous anti-spam features. Gmail from Google has a spam folder where it automatically filters email that it speculates to be spam from getting to your inbox. This serves to reduce annoyance created by spam especially when they find their way to the primary inbox.