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No solution under the shadow of the gun

The special representative to initiate dialogue in Kashmir on what led to unrest in the Valley and the way forward

On October 23, Home Minister Rajnath Singh announced the appointment of former Intelligence Bureau (IB) chief Dineshwar Sharma as a special representative to “initiate” and “carry forward a dialogue” with elected representatives and various individuals in Jammu and Kashmir. Mr. Sharma is a 1979 Indian Police Service officer of the Kerala cadre. He served as Director of the IB from 2014 to 2016. After his retirement, the Centre was keen to give him an extension but he turned down the offer. He was later appointed as an interlocutor for talks with Assam-based insurgent groups and heads a committee to restructure the Home Ministry. Excerpts from an interview in Delhi:

What is the Centre’s intention behind the talks? The government would have informed you about your mandate.

The government didn’t tell me about its intentions. It is obvious that the government and everyone else wants peace in Kashmir. It (peace) should be durable. It cannot prevail for a few months and be disrupted by violence three years later. The focus is on bringing permanent peace in the Kashmir Valley.

What about ongoing security operations? As many as 248 operations by security forces have been conducted this year, which is the highest in the past seven years. It was said that this would also contribute to peace.

Whether it’s a Naxal-affected area or the insurgency-hit Northeast, we have seen that the action of security forces has limitations. They are there to counter the actions of terrorists or armed groups. Permanent solution and peace can only be brought about by dialogue.

Do you think people in Jammu and Kashmir will be confident enough to speak to you when security forces are training guns at people in Kashmir on the one hand and there is an announcement of a dialogue on the other?

Bullets are fired at specific people. They are for terrorists, not for the common people. Their (people’s) problems will have to be addressed. My job is to deliver and I will see to it that I rise to the expectations.

There have been such initiatives earlier too, but they did not lead to any conclusion.

I am hopeful that this time we will find a solution. We are groomed for addressing problems and not for writing lengthy reports.

During your tenure as IB chief, was Kashmir the biggest internal security challenge?

When I became the IB chief in December 2014, Kashmir was not the problem. Naxal attacks and insurgency in the Northeast were the major security challenges. And to some extent, threats from Islamic State-inspired groups. Kashmir became a problem during the latter part of my tenure. Though there were problems initially, we did not expect the kind of unrest that happened in 2016.

What escalated the unrest?

Radicalisation played a major role, though its impact was felt in other parts of the country as well, as several men were arrested for being inspired by the Islamic State. Brainwashing via the Internet played a key role. It was a concerted effort by some to radicalise the youth to spread violence. We were watching it closely and took several steps to ensure that the youth don’t fall for such propaganda.

Wasn’t the gunning down of Hizbul Mujahideen ‘commander’ Burhan Wani and two others by security forces in July 8, 2016 the reason behind the unrest?

Radicalisation was already at its peak and an icon like Burhan Wani was created by vested interests. The youth fell for it and came out on the streets.

Was Burhan Wani an icon?

He was projected as an icon. He was a terrorist. He gave interviews that he wanted to establish a Caliphate in Kashmir. It indicated the line of thought and ideology he followed. In some of the videos available on social media, he was advocating for a Caliphate. He had links to Hafiz Saeed (Jamaat-ud-Dawa chief) and other terrorist organisations. But the fear of guns has to go. There can be no solution under the shadow of the gun.

Does this mean that security forces should also reduce the number of operations?

First, the guns of terrorists should fall silent. Security forces should not harass ordinary Kashmiris. They should not be targeting innocent people. They should have the confidence of the people living in the State.

Will you talk to the members of the Hurriyat Conference?

It will not be possible for me to answer this at the moment. I will go to Kashmir first and then decide.

But what will be the road map? You cannot land one day in Kashmir and expect people to come and speak to you. Will you invite them?

The media is there for advertising my visit. We will finalise the modalities soon. It will not be proper to discuss the details. I will go as early as possible. No date has been finalised yet. If there is a need, we will advertise in newspapers.

Have you read the reports of previous interlocutors — of former Union Minister K.C. Pant who was appointed in 2002, the report by N.N. Vohra, and the three-member committee appointed in 2010?

I am going through them in detail. I’ve read them in bits and pieces before.

Do you plan to improvise on them?

It has to be seen.

Home Minister Rajnath Singh said the special representative would emphasise on addressing the aspirations of the youth. Have you identified such groups?

Youth doesn’t mean any particular group. I don’t want to give any definition of the youth. College students, those who have recently graduated… Unemployment is a major problem and we will need the help of the government in addressing this. I cannot do this alone; I am not an employment-generating agency.

The Centre announced a ₹80,000 crore financial package for Jammu and Kashmir a couple of years ago. Do you think such promises will help you in connecting with the masses in the Valley?

The announcement of a development package is not only for Kashmir; it has been done for other States also. It naturally addresses the sentiments of the people that the Centre is serious about their development, employment opportunities, and growth.

What kind of jobs does the Centre intend to offer?

Let’s see the scope… how far the State government can address this issue.

You met Jammu and Kashmir Chief Minister Mehbooba Mufti. Can you share details of the meeting?

It was a courtesy call. I will also meet leaders of the Opposition. They were not in Delhi, so when I go there I will meet them.

Will you factor in Pakistan in your dialogue?

Pakistan does not feature in the present scheme of things. It’s only the people of Jammu and Kashmir. We have to talk to them first.

Why is the government referring to you as a special representative and not as an interlocutor? What is the difference between the two?

I don’t think there is any difference. These are trivial issues.

The government hasn’t defined the terms of reference yet?

The Home Minister has already announced that I will talk to everyone. I think those are the terms of reference. I have been given a free hand to speak to anyone I want.

As soon as the announcement was made, two divergent statements were issued. One was by Army chief Bipin Rawat who said operations won’t stop and the other was by Union Minister Jitendra Singh.

We will see. The people of Jammu and Ladakh will also be included in the dialogue process. The problem is more in the Valley though.

Former Pakistan President Pervez Musharraf had suggested a four-point formula to solve the Kashmir issue. It included demilitarisation or phased withdrawal of troops. Are you considering these options?

These issues are not in my charter. Whether security forces should be withdrawn from Siachen or not, I will not be delving into such issues. These are security-related matters. I will only speak to the people of Kashmir.

You met Prime Minister Narendra Modi shortly before your name was announced. Did he assign anything specific? Was the appointment his initiative?

He wants peace (in Kashmir) fast. There should be no more delay. Yes, it was the Prime Minister’s initiative to appoint a special representative.

The Hurriyat has not shown much interest. Investigations by the National Investigation Agency are being conducted in parallel. Will it affect your job?

Investigation is a different issue; I have a different job to do. I cannot interfere in the work of any investigating agency.

How will you handle the anger of the Kashmiris?

They are like our family members. We will try to calm them down by talking to them. Even within a family, there are some members who speak in different tunes. It is our job to convince them.

Is there a time limit for you to complete the dialogue process? When were you approached by the Centre?

I was approached two days before the formal announcement was made on October 23. It is a huge responsibility. I will see whether I can rise to their expectations. There is no time limit. There cannot be any deadline for such dialogues. I will carry forward the dialogue gradually.

Dineshwar sharma

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Semalt Expert: Everything You Were Afraid To Ask About SEO

SEO has four basic elements that are important for the online marketing and publicity success. The online success is important in attracting new clients for the business. The four elements are rankings, visitors, conversions, and optimization intent. It is important for the business owner to understand the appropriate keyword phrases. It is also necessary to make sure that the search engine can locate the keywords and analyze them effectively. The keywords should be strong, and the search engine process should benefit from a website architecture that is user-friendly. The links should be simple to identify and easy to navigate. In the article, Max Bell, the Semalt Customer Success Manager, explains the four basic SEOelements.

1. Rankings

The main objective of SEO is to enable the website of the business to achieve a top rank in the search engines. The top position on the first search page improves the online visibility of the business. However, the ranking is not the ultimate goal of the SEO process. Many business owners study ranking results from the search process. They feel demotivated if they do not get the top position after using a lot of financial, human, and technological resources. They should understand that rankings have different effects on the success of the business. Top rankings do not influence sales value directly; they just provide an opportunity for internet users to know the products or services offered by the business. A website that is ranked as №5 may have better services and information than the website that is ranked №1.

2. Visitors

The number of users who visit the website will increase if the optimization process generates rankings. Websites will also record rankings when important keywords are used in the SEO process. Increase in the number of visitors as a result of rankings is good. However, it is not the ultimate goal of the optimization process. The SEO expert benefits financially if he or she is remunerated based on the level of impression and online publicity.

3. Conversions

This is the ultimate goal of the optimization process. SEO process should generate more benefits than just increasing the search rankings and the visitor traffic. It should result in the increase of the conversion level and rates. Conversion goals are diverse and based on the interests of the website owners. Examples of conversion goals include high blog comments, increased downloads of products, high Twitter or Facebook following, or increased sales volume. The optimization strategy should be connected to the achievement of the conversion goals.

4. Search Engines and Optimization Intent

Even though the search engines are technologically smart, they cannot determine the intent of the website owner. This is a major challenge of the SEO process because the intent is required to understand the relevance of the website and the keywords. The SEO professionals are, therefore, required to indicate the desired issues or concepts to prevent guessing by the search engines. The intent is also critical in improving the knowledge of the visitors about the information in the online page. The website should be easy to navigate, and the available information should be in simple language.

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Semalt Expert Elaborates On Types Of Keywords For SEO

It would not be wrong to say that keywords play a vital role in how your content or website is ranked in the search engine results.

There are different types of keywords, but the most common ones have been discussed below by Ross Barber, the Customer Success Manager of Semalt.

Short-tail keywords

The short-tail keywords are those keywords that comprise short words, phrases, and variants. They are more generic and better than the long-tail keywords and can be used in all types of articles. For example, when someone is writing about a shoe brand, he can write the word “shoes” or “footwear” multiple times throughout the text. If you want to get the top spot on Google, then you must use short-tail keywords in all of your articles. The majority of these keywords ensure to bring high-quality traffic because their conversion rate is lower than the focused keywords.

Long-tail keywords

Unlike short tail keywords, the long-tail keywords consist of two to three words and are more specific and traffic-oriented. For example, the “pink shoes for women” is a long-tail keyword and can be used by shoe brands or footwear stores online. If someone types into search engines, he will surely see your pages if you have accurately ranked this keyword. As compared to the short-tail keywords, the long-tail keywords are easy to use, and they can be divided into different phrases for better results. The conversion rates of the long-tail keywords substantially increase if you use them in the form of fragments, phrases, and variants. Make sure you don’t use the same keyword in more than two content pieces as it can lower your site’s number of views.

Branded keywords

Branded keywords are those keywords that may or may not contain phrases of your business or brand. If someone is looking for a brand like Apple, he will type it in the Google search engine, and if you have ranked a similar keyword, there are chances that your website will be visible to him. If you want to get good rank in the search engine results, you must use branded keywords as they increase your brand’s awareness among the visitors. Make sure you include phrases and variants with your brand name, and your goal should be to get number one rank in the search engine results.

Non-branded keywords

Non branded keywords do not contain names of your business. They aim to attract more and more people towards your brand and should be used on social media in a large number. They are entirely different from the branded keywords and should be ranked well so that more and more people get attracted towards your website.

Inferred keywords

These keywords are also known as geographical keywords or geo keywords. They contain location names and relevant phrases. For example, you can write “red shoes in London.” Here you are providing your readers with the idea that your company is located in London and it deals in red shoes for men, women, and children.

Seasonal keywords

Seasonal keywords are those keywords that are used during Christmas, Halloween, Easter or another season. They get easily ranked in those days and can ensure to get you more sales online.

Misspelled Keywords

Various people make spelling mistakes or type variations while entering phrases in search engine boxes. For example, Americans write “favorite” while Europeans and Canadians call it “favourite.” You can rank these misspelled keywords to drive lots of traffic to your web pages.

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Semalt Expert Describes 15 Black Hat SEO Strategies That Can Ruin Your Brand

In the recent times, Google and other search engines have been on a hunt for sites that uses black hat SEO tactics. In this regard, it is evident that black hat SEO practices will ultimately put websites at risk.

Jack Miller, a leading specialist of Semalt, outlines here black hat SEO strategies that can affect startups while striving to grow in internet marketing.

1. Cloaking

It is the most common black hat SEO tactic of attracting traffic to a website through deception. It allows a site owner to provide totally different URL or content to the site visitor with what is available on the search engine

2. Gateway or Doorway Pages

Refers to pages messed, stuffed and, entirely over equipped by strong keywords with a weak proposition value. The pages lack any helpful, valid or valuable information. They only contain rich keywords that catch visitors’ attention and redirect them to a different webpage.

3. Paid Links

One of the requirements of ranking on a search engine is link building. The process is not easy and entails a lot of efforts, quality, and hard work. Paid links make everything straight for the site owners. They do not have a mind about the quality of context, but insert the desired anchor text or link up with the anticipated content. It is considered as a black hat SEO strategy.

4. Hidden Links and Tiny Texts

The most irritating black hat SEO technique, whereby site owners include illegible links and texts at the bottom of a webpage or corners where the two are visually untraceable. The texts and links are of the same color as the background and hence stuffing any keyword that is disregarded by visitors.

5. Duplicate Content

It is simply theft or stealing of other people’s content. The work must not be an entire match, but even a close match is considered to be a duplicate content.

6. Article Spinning

Refers to re-writing published content either manually or by the use of bots. It is common with lazy marketers who do not want to think on their own.

7. Keyword Stuffing

It is a process that involves overloading keywords on the site’s content. In this case, site owners align keywords pointlessly with meta tags.

8. Spam Blogs

These are pages that contain meaningless contents that are overloaded with hyperlinks. Spam blogs are created with the intention of generating backlinks for associated websites.

9. Referrer Spam

The tactic of using nonexistent URL that redirects to a website that a hacker will bombard with continual requests to a visitor.

10. Private Blog Network (PBN)

That refers to a category of high authority websites that link a money website with quality anchor texts.

11. Page Swapping

It denotes changing an already popular, indexed and ranked page with traffic that is different from the original version.

12. Link Farms

It means building a system of sources where a website’s URL is linked up with irrelevant and low-quality contents.

13. Cybersquatting

Refers to the copying of trademarks or buying domain names.

14. Typosquatting

Denotes copying of a competitors’ URL and misspelling it intentionally when building a new domain.

15. Social Networking Spamming

This means advertising to visitors on social networks with undesired videos and comments.

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Insight To Black Hat Social Media – Semalt Expert

There are two types of search engineoptimization (SEO): White Hat SEO and Black Hat SEO. Black Hat social media is emerging nowadays and has spawned an advanced era of the internet. That happens when your social media sites are attacked by the hackers and you are tricked in a lot of ways.

Michael Brown, the Semalt Customer Success Manager, explains that whether you are running a small business or a big one, you must be familiar with the Black Hat SEO and Black Hat Social media. Both of these practices need to be avoided if you want to run your business for a lifetime. While various webmasters have started to recognize Black Hat Social media, a lot of information on how it influences SEO has never been shared.

Introduction to Black Hat social media

First of all, you should be familiar with what Black Hat social media is. The term “black hat” is referred to a particular type of hackers who use illegal SEO tactics. They remain involved in violating computer security and create a lot of problems for you. Just like Black Hat SEO, Black Hat social media is meant to damage your online presence to a great extent. Social media, including Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn, and Google+, have provided us with some special guidelines of how to avoid Black Hat social media and how to improve your online presence to drive quality traffic to your website.

Unfortunately, it is not possible to get rid of Black Hat social media as the hackers and spammers have implemented various strategies to trick the users. They attempt to utilize your social media sites for their reasons. They want to improve the ranking of their own websites, giving you though time on the internet even when you have been involved in white hat social media practices.

Some examples of Black Hat social media

Some examples of Black Hat social media are buying false likes and followers and paying heavily for YouTube subscribers. If you are involved in acts of sharing porn hyperlinks, your site’s security might be at risk. You should never use programs to get automatic followers on Twitter and Instagram. Plus, you should avoid creating social media accounts with fake names to generate more likes, shares, and comments. Writing negative reviews on the pages of your competitors are not allowed on the internet. In the same way, you should not write positive reviews on your personal or company pages to drive more and more traffic.

Buying fake likes, shares, and followers is not a good practice. Search Engine Land reveals that social media websites have strict rules and regulations to make sure that their platforms are not used for illegal activities. Most SEO experts know that social media websites play a significant role in improving the rank of our website, and they drive a lot of traffic to our articles. But if you are involved in illegal practices, your site will not get indexed in the search engines, and your social media profiles might get banned. You should never optimize fake accounts, and avoid buying fake reviews online. Facebook and Twitter have recently joined hands to shut down the profiles that look non-legitimate and don’t have good profile pictures.

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Semalt Expert: The Most Common Ways Hackers Use To Attack A Site

Hacking is a threat facing small and big businesses alike. In fact, big corporations like Microsoft, NBC, Twitter, Facebook, Drupal, and ZenDesk have recently had their websites hacked into. Whether these cyber criminals wish to steal private data, shut down your PC or take over the control of your website, one thing remains clear; they interfere with businesses.

Artem Abgarian, the Semalt Senior Customer Success Manager, offers to consider the following tricks a hacker can use to infiltrate into your websites/system.

1. An Injection Attack

This attack occurs when there is a flaw in your SQL Library, SQL Database or even the OS itself. Your team of employees open what passes as credible files but unknown to them, the files have hidden commands (injections). By doing so, they allow the hack to gain unauthorized access to confidential data such as credit card details, bank accounts, social security number, etc.

2. A Cross Site Scripting Attack

XSS attacks occur when a file packet, application or a URL ‘get request’ is sent to the browser’s window. Note that during the attack, the weapon (could be any of the three mentioned) bypasses the validation process. As a result, the user is deceived into thinking that they are working on a legitimate web page.

3. Broken Authentication & Session Management Attack

In this case, the hacker tries to capitalize on a weak user authentication system. This system involves user passwords, session ids, key management and browser cookies. If there is a loophole somewhere, hackers can access your user account from a remote location then they log in using your credentials.

4. The Clickjack Attack

Clickjacking (or the UI-Redress Attack) occurs when hackers use multiple, opaque layers to trick the user into clicking the top layer without suspecting a thing. In this case, the hacker ‘hijacks’ clicks that were meant for your web page. For instance, by carefully combining iframes, text boxes and stylesheets, a hacker will lead the user into thinking that they’re logging into their account, but in actual sense, that’s an invisible frame being controlled by somebody with an ulterior motive.

5. DNS Spoofing

Did you know that old cache data that you’ve forgotten about can come and haunt you? Well, a hacker can identify a vulnerability in the domain name system that allows them to divert traffic from a legit server to dummy website or server. These attacks replicate and spread themselves from one DNS server to another, spoofing anything on its path.

6. Social Engineering Attack

Technically, this is not hacking per se. In this case, you give confidential information in good faith say over a web chat, email, social media or through any online interaction. However, this is where a problem comes in; what you thought was a legit service provider turns out to be a ploy. A good example would be the “Microsoft Technical Support” scam.

7. SYMlinking (an inside attack)

Symlinks are special files that “point to” a hard link abreast a mounted file system. Here, the hacker strategically positions the symlink such that the application or user accessing the endpoint assumes they are accessing the correct file. These modifications corrupt, overwrite, append or change file permissions.

8. Cross-Site Request Attack

These attacks happen when the user is logged into their account. A hacker from a remote location may seize this opportunity to send you a forged HTTP request. This is meant to collect your cookie info. This cookie data remains valid if you stay logged in. To be safe, always log out of your accounts when done with them.

9. The Remote Code Execution Attack

This exploits weaknesses on your server. Culpable components like remote directories, frameworks, libraries as well as other software modules running on the user-authentication basis are targeted by malware, scripts and command lines.

10. DDOS Attack

A distributed denial of service attack (abbreviated as DDOS), occurs when the machine’s or server’s services are denied to you. Now when you are offline, the hackers tinker with the website or a specific function. The aim of this attack is this: interrupt or take over a running system.

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Semalt Directs How To Block Buttons For Website And Darodar Bots

Many website owners have noticed and the domains showing up on the Google Analytics reports. They pose as referrers sending a considerable amount of traffic. They do not do much harm to the site, but the number of visits that they present to the website affect the bounce rates and the time spent on the page. The result is that the Google search algorithm will treat it as a quality issue and that people do not find what they look for on the site. Consequently, they lower the search ranking of the website. It may not seem a lot for large organizations, but for a small size business with a website, it could make or break its operations.

Alexander Peresunko, the Customer Success Manager of Semalt, presents here some handy ways on how to overcome this problem.

Both crawlers link back to a site which appears to be legitimate. Darodar seems to offer site analysis for users, while buttons-for-website gives businesses a chance to share their URL through such things as +AddThis. It is where the issue of legitimacy seems to end though since some sources have revealed the nefarious intent of these two sites. Darodar has been around more than the buttons-for-website, and has created a “botnet.” A botnet is a network of virus-infected computers whose intention is to compromise computer security. It provides hackers with the vulnerabilities they need to gain back entry into the system. The one controlling the botnet directs the activities of these networks.

The botnet includes thousands of IP addresses which makes it difficult to block the crawler successfully through IP Exclusion in Analytics. Frequent articles point to the fact that the bot continues to infect websites through one or more programs with an embedded virus. Soundfrost is one popular utility download that contains the said virus.

Using the robots.txt method to block buttons-for-website and darodar, as one would with other crawlers/spiders, would not be as effective since it’s directives rely on voluntary compliance. If the owner currently runs Black Hat strategies, their activities do not comply with the laid down guidelines.

The darodar bot has several uses. One of them is to artificially boost the SEO of a site by directing traffic to the site. Its configuration is in such a way that it does not appear as a crawler. It looks like an actual visitor and the search engines will include it in their reports, thus leading to skewness in the Analytics data. This is known as link spamming, something which has become less efficient due to the recent algorithm updates.

Wikipedia defines referrer spam as a form of spamdexing which involves repeated requests using a fake referrer URL to a site that the spammer wishes to advertise. The sites then inadvertently link back to the spammer’s site which record as traffic for them. It is beneficial to the spammer as the free links help build their search rankings.

Other roles that botnets serve are the denial-of-service attacks, click fraud, spamdexing, theft or personal and financial information, SMTP mail relays for spam, and mining bitcoins. Based on these findings, it would be undesirable to have such traffic on the website.

Buttons For Website has similar functions, only that its delivery is a little different. It offers a handy sharing tool for websites. The moment the owner installs it, it creates a gateway which people can use to hijack the web browser of visitors to their site.

Blocking Buttons For Website and Darodar

The option to block buttons-for-website and darodar by using the IP exclusion to prevent traffic from them will not be as successful. The reason is that they both have many IP addresses driving traffic to the site. An alternative is to edit the .htaccess file of each of these domains and block traffic from there. To do this, one must access the root directory on the web host which makes up the WordPress site. Make sure to use the Apache system which most host providers use. If one has no experience with changing the .htaccess files, request the webmaster to help with it since any slight mistake may lead to the crashing of the entire site.

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Semalt Unveils The Difference Between SEO And SMM

Most businesses wish to prosper in online marketing. However, to succeed in online marketing, one needs some digital era techniques such as SEO and SMM. The two techniques may sound the same to an entrepreneur who is not conversant with the field of digital marketing. For instance, SEO might involve keywords searches while social media marketing involves paid ads. The two tactics can be beneficial to most online businesses especially if one knows the difference.

Jason Adler, the Customer Success Manager of Semalt Digital Services, presents some key points which can differentiate SEO from SMM:

Search Engine Optimization (SEO).

These are tactics in web development which aims at increasing the visibility of your website on the search engines, particularly when one keys in a search query. SEO combines many on-site and off-site factors to get traffic from search engines. For a digital marketer. The goal of any successful SEO campaign is to get a favorable spot in the ranking of search engine results for a given set of keywords. This is important because you can defeat your competitor, get new quality traffic and most importantly, increase the conversions. SEO involves the use of strategies such as:

  • Keywords search
  • Website designing
  • Content building
  • Linking
  • Tools automation

Search Engine Marketing (SEM) is a different approach to online marketing. SEM is the sponsored listing. It involves placing targeted ads on particular user’s organic search result pages. The procedure involves bidding. Certain persons on certain demographics will see your ad for a given period. This method is used widely due to its seamless pay-to-click automation.

Social Media Marketing (SMM).

While SEO gathers traffic through search engines, SMM is yet another digital marketing tactic. SMM strictly uses social media as its criteria for getting online customers. Social media targets prominent social network sites such as Facebook, Twitter, Tumblr, Pinterest and LinkedIn. Marketers in this field increase a brands awareness, gather emails, gain links and enhance their profit margins using the numerous ways available to social media. For instance, Facebook has a strategy of paid adverts. These ads will target a particular demographic which has correctly been set by you. Other online marketing channels in social media include:

  • Twitter ads
  • Videos like YouTube or Vimeo
  • LinkedIn following
  • Image sharing like in Instagram and Pinterest.

Traditionally, both SEO and SMM target gaining clients for a website. Despite the difference, they also increase the brand awareness to potential consumers. On the other hand, the conversion of a visitor to a customer is not entirely dependent on them. Other factors like web design come into effect.


Companies wishing to be successful online need digital marketing, However, terms like Search Engine Optimization (SEO) and Social Media Marketing (SMM) may become confusing. Both SEO and SMM are digital marketing techniques. Mostly, they aim at increasing brand visibility and most importantly, getting new clients online. However, the two are different in the way they operate. For example, SEO involves increasing the visibility in the big search engines while SMM means increasing brand awareness using social media. Through understanding their differences, both tactics are necessary and can bring long term benefits to a business when carried out correctly.

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Reliance Jio Phone explodes while charging? Company says case of intentional damage

A Reliance Jio Phone has reportedly exploded in Kashmir. This is the first time such a report has come in, ever since Reliance had launched the 4G feature phone in India. According to a report in PhoneRadar, a Jio Phone had exploded in Kashmir. An image was shared on Twitter which showed that the rear panel of the device had melted but there was no apparent damage to the battery. Meanwhile, in a statement to FE Online, a company spokesperson claimed that in the initial investigation it was found that the issue is a case of “intentional sabotage”. The account which shared the picture of the device has now deleted the post. Jio has been carrying out the first stage of delivering the pre-ordered device, and the next round is expected to roll out soon.

The report in Phone Radar says that they have access to an image of the Jio Phone charger whose wire has also apparently melted. The report cites a Lyf distributor who checked the Jio Phone and said that the battery is still operational. Meanwhile, the company, in a statement said, “JioPhones are designed and manufactured with global standards, and each phone goes through stringent quality control process. The said incident has been reported to us. Our initial investigation suggests that this is a case of intentional sabotage.” It added: “The damage to the device seems to have been intentionally caused. The incident, as well as its timing, has been designed by vested interests to malign the brand. We will take appropriate action based on further investigations.”

Meanwhile, Reliance Jio had temporarily stopped the bookings of the Jio mobile and said the pre-bookings would restart after Diwali. It has promised that 6 million JioPhone units would be delivered by Diwali. In order to book the Jio Phone, a user needs to pay Rs 1,500 as a security deposit. An amount of Rs 500 is required to be paid at the time of booking and the rest can be paid after the delivery is done.

The Reliance Jio Phone is a feature phone which has 4G VoLTE capability. It is a first of its kind device in India and is expected to disrupt the segment in India. As a result, Airtel has also decided to launch its own cheap 4G smartphone in the country. Even BSNL has partnered with Micromax to launch Bharat-1, another 4G VoLTE feature phone.

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Write in spoken language

Something comes over most people when they start writing. They write in a different language than they’d use if they were talking to a friend. The sentence structure and even the words are different. No one uses “pen” as a verb in spoken English. You’d feel like an idiot using “pen” instead of “write” in a conversation with a friend.

The last straw for me was a sentence I read a couple days ago:

The mercurial Spaniard himself declared: “After Altamira, all is decadence.”

It’s from Neil Oliver’s A History of Ancient Britain. I feel bad making an example of this book, because it’s no worse than lots of others. But just imagine calling Picasso “the mercurial Spaniard” when talking to a friend. Even one sentence of this would raise eyebrows in conversation. And yet people write whole books of it.

Ok, so written and spoken language are different. Does that make written language worse?

If you want people to read and understand what you write, yes. Written language is more complex, which makes it more work to read. It’s also more formal and distant, which gives the reader’s attention permission to drift. But perhaps worst of all, the complex sentences and fancy words give you, the writer, the false impression that you’re saying more than you actually are.

You don’t need complex sentences to express complex ideas. When specialists in some abstruse topic talk to one another about ideas in their field, they don’t use sentences any more complex than they do when talking about what to have for lunch. They use different words, certainly. But even those they use no more than necessary. And in my experience, the harder the subject, the more informally experts speak. Partly, I think, because they have less to prove, and partly because the harder the ideas you’re talking about, the less you can afford to let language get in the way.

Informal language is the athletic clothing of ideas.

I’m not saying spoken language always works best. Poetry is as much music as text, so you can say things you wouldn’t say in conversation. And there are a handful of writers who can get away with using fancy language in prose. And then of course there are cases where writers don’t want to make it easy to understand what they’re saying—in corporate announcements of bad news, for example, or at the more bogus end of the humanities. But for nearly everyone else, spoken language is better.

It seems to be hard for most people to write in spoken language. So perhaps the best solution is to write your first draft the way you usually would, then afterward look at each sentence and ask “Is this the way I’d say this if I were talking to a friend?” If it isn’t, imagine what you would say, and use that instead. After a while this filter will start to operate as you write. When you write something you wouldn’t say, you’ll hear the clank as it hits the page.

Before I publish a new essay, I read it out loud and fix everything that doesn’t sound like conversation. I even fix bits that are phonetically awkward; I don’t know if that’s necessary, but it doesn’t cost much.

This trick may not always be enough. I’ve seen writing so far removed from spoken language that it couldn’t be fixed sentence by sentence. For cases like that there’s a more drastic solution. After writing the first draft, try explaining to a friend what you just wrote. Then replace the draft with what you said to your friend.

People often tell me how much my essays sound like me talking. The fact that this seems worthy of comment shows how rarely people manage to write in spoken language. Otherwise everyone’s writing would sound like them talking.

If you simply manage to write in spoken language, you’ll be ahead of 95% of writers. And it’s so easy to do: just don’t let a sentence through unless it’s the way you’d say it to a friend.